We help make sports you love safer.
Unlike an injury like a ligament tear or shoulder sprain, brain injuries are not always apparent or easily detectable. As a result, athletes often continue playing without knowing they are at risk. Brain Sentry is on a mission to change this.
Understanding Sports-Related Brain Injuries
Brain Sentry monitors impacts and helps identify athletes that should be assessed for concussion. Brain Sentry helps coaches identify players with techniques that include excessive head/helmet contact.
The Epidemic of Under Reporting
Too often, athletes don’t want to be pulled out of the game, so they don’t communicate their concussion symptoms. It’s also possible they don’t even realize they have a concussion.
Percentage of players that athletic trainers say sustain concussions *
Percentage of teammates that players say experience concussions †
Percentage of victims with catastrophic head injuries that continued to play with concussions ‡
Percentage of sustained concussions diagnosed after players were given descriptions of symptoms without using the word "concussion" †
* Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Guskiewicz K, Weaver N, Padua D, Garrett W. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5):643-650
† Unreported Concussion in HS Football Players: Implications for Prevention. McCrea et al. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:1
‡ Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and College Football Players Boden, Tacchetti, Cantu, Knowles, Mueller. Am J Sports Med July. 2007 vol. 35 no. 7 1075-108
Supporting Research & Resources
Sport concussion represents the majority of brain injuries occurring in the...Read More
This study introduces a new injury metric, the combined probability of...Read More
Head trauma results in more fatalities than any other sport injury and is the cause...Read More
Research now suggests that head impacts commonly occur during contact sports...Read More
Each year, between 1.6 X 106 and 3.8 X 106 concussions are sustained by...Read More
Validation of Concussion Risk Curves for Collegiate Football Players Derived from HITS Data. Funk et al. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2012; pp. 79–89.
Unreported Concussion in HS Football Players: Implications for Prevention. McCrea et al. Clin J Sport Med. 2004; 14:1.
“The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy” Brain, A Journal of Neurology. McKee, A.C., et al. A Journal of Neurology. 2012, advanced access, doi 10.1093/brain/aws307.
Consequences of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Football Players. Marchi N et al. journal.pone.0056805 PLoS ONE 8(3): e56805 doi:10.1371.
Cumulative head impact burden in high school football. Broglio SP, Eckner JT, Martini D, Sosnoff JJ, Kutcher JS, Randolph C. J Neurotrauma 2011 Oct; 28(10):2069-78.
Frequency and Location of Head Impact Exposures in Individual Collegiate Football Players Journal of Athletic Training. Crisco JJ, Fiore R, Greenwald RM. 2010; 45(6):549–559.
The Epidemiology of Sports-Related Concussion. Clinics in Sports Medicine. Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Cantu RC. 2011; 30(1): 1-17.
The Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion. Giza CC, Hovda DA. J Athl Train. 2001; 36(3): 228-235.
Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: relationship between head impact biomechanics and acute clinical outcome after concussion. Guskiewicz KM, Mihalik JP, Shankar V, et al. Neurosurgery. 2007; 61(6):1244–52; [discussion 52–3].
White Matter Integrity in the Brains of Professional Soccer Players Without a Symptomatic Concussion. Koerte IK, Ertl-Wagner B Reiser M, Zafonte R, Shenton ME. JAMA. 2012; 308(18):1859-1861. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.13735.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury. McKee AC, Cantu RC, Stern RA et al. J Neuropath Exp Neurol. 2009; 68(7): 709-735.
Measurement of Head Impacts in Youth Ice Hockey Players. Reed N. et al. Int J Sports Med. 2010; 31: 826 – 833.
In vivo study of head impacts in football: a comparison of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I versus high school impacts. Schnebel B, Gwin JT, Anderson S, Gatlin R. Neurosurgery. 2007; 60(3):490–5.
Functionally-Detected Cognitive Impairment in High School Football Players Without Clinically-Diagnosed Concussion. Talavage, T et al. J Neurotrauma. 2010; Oct 1.
Biomechanics of sport concussion: quest for the elusive injury threshold. Guskiewicz, K.M. and J.P. Mihalik. J Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 2011; Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 4-11.
Rotational head kinematics in football impacts: an injury risk function for concussion. Rowson, S., S.M. Duma, J.G. Beckwith, J.J. Chu, R.M. Greenwald, J.J. Crisco, P.G. Brolinson, A.C. Duhaime, T.W. McAllister, and A.C. Maerlender. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2012; 40(1):1-13.
Prevention and mitigation of injuries. Gurdjian, E.S. Clinical Neurosurgery. 1972; 19:43-57.
Subject-specific changes in brain white matter on diffusion tensor imaging after sports-related concussion. Bazarian JJ, Zhu T, Blyth B, Borrino A, Zhong J. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012; 30: 171-180.
Biomechanical Basis for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Head Impact Exposure Sustained by Football Players on Days of Diagnosed Concussion. Beckwith JG, Greenwald RM, Chu JJ, et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2012.
Timing of concussion diagnosis is related to head impact exposure prior to injury. Beckwith JG, Greenwald RM, Chu JJ, Crisco JJ, Rowson S, Duma SM, Broglio SP, McAllister TW, Guskiewicz KM, Mihalik JP, Anderson S, Schnebel B, Brolinson PG, Collins MW. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2012.
Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football. Breedlove EL, Robinson M, Talavage TM, Morigaki KE, Yoruk U, O’Keefe K, et al. J Biomech. 2012; 45: 1265-1272.
Hit Count Threshold White Paper. Cantu R, Gioia G, Guskiewicz K, Hoshizaki B, Hovda D, McKee A, Nowinski C, Meehan W, Sarmiento K. SLI Hit Count Science and Education Committee. 2013.
Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets. Duhaime AC, Beckwith JG, Maerlender AC, McAllister TW, Crisco JJ, Duma SM, Brolinson PG, Rowson S, Flashman LA, Chu JJ, Greenwald RM. J. Neurosurg. 2012; 117(6):1092–1099.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, suicides and parasuicides in professional American athletes: the role of the forensic pathologist. Omalu BI, Bailes J, Hammers JL, Fitzsimmons RP. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010; 31: 130-132.
Functionally-detected cognitive impairment in high school football players without clinically-diagnosed concussion. Talavage TM, Nauman E, Breedlove EL, Yoruk U, Dye AE, Morigaki K, et al. J Neurotrauma. 2013.
Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: an investigation of positional and event-type differences. Mihalik, J.P., D.R. Bell, S.W. Marshall, K.M. Guskiewicz. Neurosurgery. 2007; 61(6): 1229-35.